Three reasons in the accuracy of sensory information

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Three reasons in the accuracy of sensory information

Rees and Duckert Presbycusis Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss generally begins at about age 40 and progresses gradually with increasing age. It is usually bilateral. The characteristic 4, Hz dip observed in noise-induced hearing loss is not seen with presbycusis.

Three reasons in the accuracy of sensory information

However, it is possible to have the effects of ageing superimposed on noise-related hearing loss. Treatment The first essential of treatment is avoidance of any further exposure to potentially toxic levels of noise see "Prevention" below. It is generally believed that no more subsequent hearing loss occurs after the removal from noise exposure than would be expected from the normal ageing process.

While conduction losses, for example, those related to acute traumatic noise-induced damage, are amenable to medical treatment or surgery, chronic noise-induced hearing loss cannot be corrected by treatment.

The use of a hearing aid is the sole "remedy" possible, and is only indicated when hearing loss affects the frequencies critical for speech comprehension to 3, Hz. Other types of support, for example lip-reading and sound amplifiers on telephones, for examplemay, however, be possible.

Prevention Because noise-induced hearing loss is permanent, it is essential to apply any measure likely to reduce exposure.

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If reliance is placed on the latter, it is imperative to verify that their manufacturers' claims for effectiveness are valid and that exposed workers are using them properly at all times. The designation of 85 dB A as the highest permissible occupational exposure limit was to protect the greatest number of people.

But, since there is significant interpersonal variation, strenuous efforts to keep exposures well below that level are indicated. Periodic audiometry should be instituted as part of the medical surveillance programme to detect as early as possible any effects that may indicate noise toxicity.

Three reasons in the accuracy of sensory information

But until the latest decade there has been only little attention paid to audiologic effects of industrial chemicals. The recent research on chemically-induced hearing disorders has focused on solvents, heavy metals and chemicals inducing anoxia.

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In studies with rodents, a permanent decrease in auditory sensitivity to high-frequency tones has been demonstrated following weeks of high-level exposure to toluene. Histopathological and auditory brainstem response studies have indicated a major effect on the cochlea with damage to the outer hair cells.

Similar effects have been found in exposure to styrene, xylenes or trichloroethylene. Several human cases with damage to the auditory system together with severe neurologic abnormalities have been reported following solvent sniffing.

In case series of persons with occupational exposure to solvent mixtures, to n-hexane or to carbon disulphide, both cochlear and central effects on auditory functions have been reported.

Exposure to noise was prevalent in these groups, but the effect on hearing has been considered greater than expected from noise. Only few controlled studies have so far addressed the problem of hearing impairment in humans exposed to solvents without a significant noise exposure.

In a Danish study, a statistically significant elevated risk for self-reported hearing impairment at 1. In a group exposed to both solvents and noise, no additional effect from solvent exposure was found. A good agreement between reporting hearing problems and audiometric criteria for hearing impairment was found in a subsample of the study population Jacobsen et al.

In a Dutch study of styrene-exposed workers a dose-dependent difference in hearing thresholds was found by audiometry Muijser et al. In another study from Brazil the audiologic effect from exposure to noise, toluene combined with noise, and mixed solvents was examined in workers in printing and paint manufacturing industries.

Compared to an unexposed control group, significantly elevated risks for audiometric high frequency hearing loss were found for all three exposure groups. For noise and mixed solvent exposures the relative risks were 4 and 5 respectively.

In the group with combined toluene and noise exposure a relative risk of 11 was found, suggesting interaction between the two exposures Morata et al.

The effect of lead on hearing has been studied in surveys of children and teenagers from the United States.This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part..

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It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. Sensory Perceptions Blanca Vazquez Professor Jenna Thrasher-Sneathen Critical Thinking-PHI April 15, Three reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information is perception, interpretation, and knowledge.

Three reasons for believing in the accuracy of sensory information are as follows * Whenever you touch something hot or cold, the sense of touch & feelings detects it & sends a message to brain and in response you act and remove your hand from that hot or cold material * Your sense of sight helps.

Provide three reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information. Describe three factors contribution to the accuracy of sensory data. what is the role of memory with regards ***** ***** interpretation and evaluation of sensory data.

Expert: Manas11 replied 2 years ago. Ancient Greek Philosophy. From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition.

Question: # Provide at least three (3) reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory infor # Provide at least three (3) reasons for believing in the accuracy or .

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