The Industrial Revolution Economic effects Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the s and was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity.
It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. It was characterized by the build out of railroadslarge-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraphuse of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.
It also was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use.
However, some continue to express reservations about its use. Vaclav Smil called the period — "The Age The industrial revolution in europe Synergy " during which most of the great innovations were developed.
Unlike the First Industrial Revolution, the inventions and innovations were engineering and science-based. Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads. Railroads also benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives.
This synergy led to the laying of 75, miles of track in the U. Hot blast was the single most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace as it greatly reduced the fuel consumption for making pig iron, and was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution.
The early technique of hot blast used iron for the regenerative heating medium. Iron caused problems with expansion and contraction, which stressed the iron and caused failure.
Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in The Cowper stove was also capable of producing high heat, which resulted in very high throughput of blast furnaces. With the greatly reduced cost of producing pig iron with coke using hot blast, demand grew dramatically and so did the size of blast furnaces.
Air blown through holes in the converter bottom creates a violent reaction in the molten pig iron that oxidizes the excess carbon, converting the pig iron to pure iron or steel, depending on the residual carbon.
The Bessemer processinvented by Sir Henry Bessemerallowed the mass-production of steelincreasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements.
The key principle was the removal of excess carbon and other impurities from pig iron by oxidation with air blown through the molten iron.
The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. The "acid" Bessemer process had a serious limitation in that it required relatively scarce hematite ore  which is low in phosphorus. Sidney Gilchrist Thomas developed a more sophisticated process to eliminate the phosphorus from iron.
In America, although non-phosphoric iron largely predominated, an immense interest was taken in the invention. The next great advance in steel making was the Siemens-Martin process. The furnace operated at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion.
Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, but Siemens did not initially use it in that manner. The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process. Its main advantages were that it did not expose the steel to excessive nitrogen which would cause the steel to become brittleit was easier to control, and that it permitted the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap steel, lowering steel production costs and recycling an otherwise troublesome waste material.
It became the leading steel making process by the early 20th century. The availability of cheap steel allowed building larger bridges, railroads, skyscrapersand ships. With large amounts of steel it became possible to build much more powerful guns and carriages, tanks, armored fighting vehicles and naval ships.
The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians believing the Industrial Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. 'The Industrial Revolution' refers to a period of massive economic, technological, social and cultural change which affected humans to such an extent that it's often compared to the change from hunter-gathering to farming. At its simplest, a mainly agrarian world economy based on manual labor was. The Industrial Revolution Economic effects. Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the s and was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity.
Rail[ edit ] A rail rolling mill in Donetsk The increase in steel production from the s meant that railroads could finally be made from steel at a competitive cost.
Being a much more durable material, steel steadily replaced iron as the standard for railway rail, and due to its greater strength, longer lengths of rails could now be rolled.
Wrought iron was soft and contained flaws caused by included dross.
Iron rails could also not support heavy locomotives and was damaged by hammer blow. The first to make durable rails of steel rather than wrought iron was Robert Forester Mushet at the Darkhill IronworksGloucestershire in The first of his steel rails was sent to Derby Midland railway station.
They were laid at part of the station approach where the iron rails had to be renewed at least every six months, and occasionally every three. Six years later, inthe rail seemed as perfect as ever, although some trains had passed over it daily.
Steel rails lasted over ten times longer than did iron,  and with the falling cost of steel, heavier weight rails were used. This allowed the use of more powerful locomotives, which could pull longer trains, and longer rail cars, all of which greatly increased the productivity of railroads.The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history as the transition from agrarian and manual labor-based economy to machine-based production fundamentally transformed economic, social, cultural and political life throughout Europe and eventually the rest of the world.
The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development, primarily in Britain, Germany and the United States, but also in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Japan.
It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians believing the Industrial Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century.
Nov 20, · Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
History of Europe - The Industrial Revolution: Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the s and was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity.
Articulate Europeans were initially more impressed by the screaming political news generated by the French. The Industrial Revolution hit Europe and along with it came a great deal of change. Not only did this industrial revolution affect standards of living in cities, it also affected greatly the nature and quality of .