Concepts[ edit ] There are multiple conceptualizations of psychopathy,  including Cleckleyan psychopathy Hervey Cleckley's conception entailing bold, disinhibited behavior, and "feckless disregard" and criminal psychopathy a meaner, more aggressive and disinhibited conception explicitly entailing persistent and sometimes serious criminal behavior. The latter conceptualization is typically used as the modern clinical concept and assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist. Efforts have therefore been made to clarify the meaning of the term.
Frequently accompanied by depressionanxietyangersubstance abuseor rage The most distinguishing symptoms of BPD are marked sensitivity to rejection or criticism, and intense fear of possible abandonment.
Fear of abandonment may lead to overlapping dating relationships as a new relationship is developed to protect against abandonment in the existing relationship. Other symptoms may include feeling unsure of one's personal identitymorals, and values; having paranoid thoughts when feeling stressed; depersonalization; and, in moderate to severe cases, stress-induced breaks with reality or psychotic episodes.
Emotions[ edit ] People with BPD may feel emotions with greater ease, depth and for a longer time than others do. Although the term emotional lability suggests rapid changes between depression and elation, the mood swings in people with this condition actually fluctuate more frequently between anger and anxiety and between depression and anxiety.
The most frequent method of self-harm is cutting. This phenomenon, sometimes called splittingincludes a shift from idealizing others to devaluing them.
While strongly desiring intimacy, people with BPD tend toward insecure, avoidant or ambivalent, or fearfully preoccupied attachment patterns in relationships,  and they often view the world as dangerous and malevolent. In particular, they tend to have difficulty knowing what they value, believe, prefer, and enjoy.
This difficulty with knowing who they are and what they value can cause people with BPD to experience feeling "empty" and "lost". It involves the mind automatically redirecting attention away from that event, presumably to protect against experiencing intense emotion and unwanted behavioral impulses that such emotion might otherwise trigger.
People with BPD may be found to have a disability in the workplace, if the condition is severe enough that the behaviors of sabotaging relationships, engaging in risky behaviors, or intense anger prevent the person from functioning in their professional role.
Twin studies may overestimate the effect of genes on variability in personality disorders due to the complicating factor of a shared family environment. Increased cortisol production is also associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Caregivers were also reported to have failed to provide needed protection and to have neglected their child's physical care.
Parents of both sexes were typically reported to have withdrawn from the child emotionally and to have treated the child inconsistently.
Thus, researchers examine developmental causes in addition to childhood trauma. Research published in January by Dr. Anthony Ruocco at the University of Toronto has highlighted two patterns of brain activity that may underlie the dysregulation of emotion indicated in this disorder: These two neural networks are seen to be dysfunctionally operative in the frontolimbic regions, but the specific regions vary widely in individuals, which calls for the analysis of more neuroimaging studies.
John Krystal, editor of the journal Biological Psychiatry, wrote that these results "[added] to the impression that people with borderline personality disorder are 'set-up' by their brains to have stormy emotional lives, although not necessarily unhappy or unproductive lives".
A study found that the relationship between a person's rejection sensitivity and BPD symptoms was stronger when executive function was lower and that the relationship was weaker when executive function was higher.
An unstable family environment predicts the development of the disorder, while a stable family environment predicts a lower risk.
One possible explanation is that a stable environment buffers against its development. That is, for individuals who believe that their actual characteristics do not match the characteristics that they hope to acquire, high self-complexity reduces the impact of their conflicted self-image on BPD symptoms.
That is, for individuals who believe that their actual characteristics do not match the characteristics that they should already have, high self-complexity does not reduce the impact of their conflicted self-image on BPD symptoms. The protective role of self-complexity in Actual-Ideal self-discrepancy, but not in Actual-Ought self-discrepancy, suggests that the impact of conflicted or unstable self-image in BPD depends on whether the individual views himself or herself in terms of characteristics that they hope to acquire, or in terms of characteristics that they should already have acquired.
However, this study did find that thought suppression mediates the relationship between an invalidating environment and BPD symptoms.
The best method is to present the criteria of the disorder to a person and to ask them if they feel that these characteristics accurately describe them. Issues of particular note are suicidal ideations, experiences with self-harm, and thoughts about harming others.
In the DSM-5the name of the disorder remains the same as in the previous editions. Consequently, all disorders, including personality disorders, are listed in Section II of the manual.
A person must meet 5 of 9 criteria to receive a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.Psychopathy is also a personality disorder, but an anti-social personality disorder. The main difference between the two is that sufferers from BDP often find it difficult to control emotions, and feel irrational levels of anger, sadness or .
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and psychopathy are believed to be the most infamous and controversial of the bunch, and share a great deal of parallel features. (Comer, ). This particular article aims to build a more concrete barrier between the pair by comparing their respective styles of emotional response.
The Borderline Personality Disorder provides an example of the affective pattern of experiencing both emotional extremes; from highly intense and dys-regulated emotions, to the extreme opposite-- feelings of numbness and detachment.
Persons with Borderline Personality Disorder tend to be highly sensitive and react with great emotional intensity. Jul 20, · Personality disorders include problems with managing emotions.
Most of the theoretical and empirical work on transdiagnostic mechanisms of disorder and treatment has covered affective disorders (mood, anxiety) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). As Shari Y. Manning, Ph.D, writes in her excellent book Loving Someone with Borderline Personality Disorder, “People with BPD have an exquisite vulnerability to emotions.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.