One thing that soon becomes clear to any one interested in anarchism is that there is not one single form of anarchism. Rather, there are different schools of anarchist thought, different types of anarchism which have many disagreements with each other on numerous issues.
Original Citation Western people have, over the past three centuries, confidently applied their own understandings and forms of organisation to the rest of the world. They have done this in the sure knowledge that these represent the most advanced, developed and sophisticated of all forms of understanding and organisation available to human beings.
To introduce those forms to non-Western people has been to start them on the road to development, short-cutting the historically long and thorny route taken by Western Europeans in achieving their advanced state of organisation and understanding. The modernisation thesis, 2 espoused in various forms and with various emphases by most development specialists over the past fifty years, has been an optimistic one.
It has assumed that, for those nations which genuinely and consistently implement the necessary social, political and economic changes, transformation into modem industrialised countries is inevitable. The state has been assumed to be a self-existent entity, separate from the communities which it controls, and able to impose necessary changes, however radical, on its populace.
So, rather than focusing on the social problems of such communities, one needs to step up the pace of modernisation. Third World governments, it has been believed 3 should, therefore, in the face of the breakdown of law and order and social cohesion in traditional communities, more rigorously implement those measures which will transform them into industrialised communities, with all the advantages of such a transformation.
The dissolution of the old is a necessary precursor and concomitant of modernisation and the state should keep its eyes firmly fixed on that goal, not deviating to attend to problems which are inevitable, but transient consequences of moving toward it. Various solutions have been proposed to combat underdevelopment.
In recent years, the state has been invested with the capacity to move toward democracy, which presumably will lead to socioeconomic development. As Max Weber claimed of Western government, relationships are transformed into objective, instrumental, depersonalised forms.
Politicians are not directly responsible to and identified with the people they represent and not directly in control of the impersonalised institutional bureaucracies through which government policies are carried out.
In the Third World, these presumptions are difficult to sustain. Political activity is not separate from other forms of activity, and those with political power exercise it personally.
That is, government, both in formulating policy and in the delivery of services is personalised. And, for people who live in communities where it is both natural and proper for leaders to be personally connected with their followers, this personalisation is unexceptional.
Government is not separate from the people, and politicians access the administrative departments of government through networks of patron-client relationships which link not only the administrative bureaucracy and politicians, but also politicians and their constituents.
At the instigation of Western nations and agencies the United Nations Convention Against Corruption has been negotiated, coming into force in As the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime explains, Corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability.
Corruption attacks the foundation of democratic institutions by distorting electoral processes, perverting the rule of law and creating bureaucratic quagmires whose only reason for existing is the soliciting of bribes.
Economic development is stunted because foreign direct investment is discouraged and small businesses within the country often find it impossible to overcome the "start-up costs" required because of corruption.
In order to appreciate the experiences of Third World nations in the post-Second World War period, we need to remember that depersonalised government of the Western kind is unusual and requires understandings of the world which are distinctively Western.
In the last twenty years there have been a number of important changes in international and regional politics around the world. This has been accompanied by a victory for neo-liberal economic reformers 7 as advisers to governments and international organisations. These advisers have managed to convince governments everywhere of the need for the privatisation of government assets and activities and deregulation of financial markets and currencies, progressively moving control of national fiscal and financial matters from national governments into the international marketplace.
In addition to pressure from international agencies to privatise and liberalise the Latin American economies, think tanks and research groups flourished throughout the region in an effort to publicise neoliberal views. This has resulted in primary production, the most important means of income generation for new nations, becoming less and less attractive to investors, since returns on primary production are usually lower and slower - and often far more uncertain-than those resulting from financial manipulations.
So, Third World nations are finding it increasingly difficult to attract and retain investment income, making their economies increasingly volatile.
The volatility of international capital investment, focused on short-term gains, means that in their efforts to retain investment capital governments must offer a range of financial inducements, competing with each other to minimise capital flight. Thus, over time, the cost of investment capital increases for those countries least able to afford such costs.
Far from there being true financial deregulation, governments find themselves having constantly to interfere, to prop up their currencies and induce capital to stay.
The Mexican crisis was caused by the volatility of short term capital flows, produced by the unfulfilled market expectations of investors. Today capital flows are dominated by international markets, to the point that domestic autonomy and sovereignty is subordinated to the markets The Mexican crisis or something similar will happen again because it is impossible to keep exchange rates fixed.
There is a strong demand for internationalisation of economies, allowing the now dominant forces of capitalism increasing entry into, and influence over internal economic activities. This, if and as it is successful, reduces the ability of governments to control economic activity and therefore to plan and implement economic, service, and welfare programs.Capitalism is heroic I, Pencil by Leonard E.
Read, (explained above by Milton Friedman).. This wonderful essay shows how capitalism is just the way the world works, when left alone.
It is what humans do when they are free.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. I. I decided to read Red Plenty because my biggest gripe after reading Singer’s book on Marx was that Marx refused to plan how communism would actually work, instead preferring to leave the entire matter for the World-Spirit to sort out.
But almost everything that interests me about Communism falls under the category of “how communism would actually work”.
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a .
Ah, but super-human AI is not the only way Moloch can bring our demise. How many such dangers can your global monarch identify in time? EMs, nanotechnology, memetic contamination, and all the other unknown ways we’re running to the bottom.
The history of Christian anarchism includes the Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Middle Ages, numerous Peasant revolts and the Anabaptists in the 16th century.
The libertarian tradition within Christianity surfaced again in the 18th century in the writings of William Blake and the American Adam Ballou reached anarchist conclusions in his Practical Christian Socialism in