Confusion about depression is commonplace, e. There is also confusion surrounding the many types of depression that people experience — unipolar depression, biological depression, manic depression, seasonal affective disorder, dysthymia, etc. Depression is characterized by a number of common symptoms.
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Postpartum depression or postnatal depression is a term that describes the occurrence of moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth although sometimes men are given this diagnosis when severe depression occurs after the birth of a child.
This depression may occur soon after delivery and may linger up to Depression research papers year or longer.
In the majority of recognized cases the depression occurs within the first three months following the delivery of the child. People who receive a diagnosis of postpartum depression must first meet the standard diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and then they must satisfy the additional specifier criteria for the postpartum onset American Psychiatric Association [APA], This criterion states that the onset of the major depressive episode must occur within four weeks after delivery.
Postpartum depression then should be responsive to traditional treatments for depression. However, because of the potential complications in using antidepressant medications to treat postpartum depression in nursing mothers an area of focus in the treatment of postpartum depression has been psychotherapy.
O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, and Grant report that investigating the effectiveness of psychotherapy for postpartum depression is important because of previous research that has identified mother -infant bonding is impaired by maternal depression and the increased social role adjustments of the new mother are seriously hampered by depressive symptoms.
The authors identify previous research that has demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are effective in the reduction of the symptoms in postpartum depression, but cite several major flaws in previous research such as: They hypothesized that under tightly controlled experimental conditions those with postpartum depression who received interpersonal therapy IPT would demonstrate a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and increases in social functioning compared to a wait list control group with postpartum depression WLC.
The researchers chose IPT as the manipulation over other therapies as IPT's focus on personal relationships with others directly addresses problems previously demonstrated to be of particular concern in women with postpartum depression.
IPT is a time-limited psychotherapy that places emphasis on interpersonal contexts such as building interpersonal skills. This is because interpersonal factors are believed to significantly contribute to psychological problems such as depression unlike other therapies that often focus on intrapsychic processes.
After several screening steps where women were assessed for depression meeting the qualifiers for postpartum depression, subjected to strict exclusion criteria including comorbid psychiatric disorders and cognitive disordersand assessed for their level of depression and social functioning Caucasian women were randomly assigned to IPT or WLC groups.
There were no significant differences between participants in the two conditions on their initial level of depression all ranged within the moderate to the severely depressed rangelength of depressive episode, or on other demographic variables age, education, etc. The groups were re-assessed for depression and social functioning at four, eight, and twelve week periods twelve weeks was the length of the study.
WLC participants were followed to make sure that they did not get treatment for their depression as well. Therapists in the IPT group were all Ph. Or PsyD level psychologists.
Therapists were trained in IPT with 40 hours of didactics and themselves attended 12 weeks of IPT therapy with a postpartum depressed patient before they treated the subjects. There were no significant differences concerning demographic factors between the therapists.
During the experiment therapists video-recorded therapy sessions and these were reviewed with the researchers to ensure treatment protocol adherence.Depression Essay Examples & Outline Are you in High School, College, Masters, Bachelors or Ph.D and need assistance with your research paper?
All you need is to ask for essay help written by a specialist in your academic field. Read the latest research findings and in-depth information on clinical depression and stress in adults, teens, and children. Expand your understanding of the symptoms and available treatment for.
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