Community development means growing in complexity in all six dimensions of culture. It differs from community empowerment which means growing stronger.
Review— Local Power and Politics in Indonesia: With different emphases, the two books under review grapple with these changes.
The most significant data revealed here is the percentage of the Chinese population in Indonesia and data on ethnicity in selected provinces. Under the Soeharto regime, such data was banned from publication, enabling only the privileged few to access it. It is now found that the Chinese population is in decline, accounting for Decentralization and democratization in indonesia 1.
The major ethnic populations listed on pp.
Other ethnicities account for only 0. Although the Javanese still occupy the top position, their proportion has also declined from With the fall of Soeharto, Indonesia entered a reform era marked by policies of decentralization and democratization.
In the national political sphere, through the synergy of these two practices, power has been diffused to three players: Yet the political sphere still maintains artefacts invented in the early life of the Republic.
At that time, mainstream politics politik aliran defined political groups by either religion or ideology, which served as the main foundation for establishing political parties.
These basic divisions still exist as the foundation for new parties or loose alliances among them. This change constitutes a radical break with the Soeharto regime, in which power was concentrated in his hands with the military serving as his backbone.
Local Power and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Edward Aspinall and Greg Fealy, explores and analyzes changes in the local political sphere. Rasyid, perhaps due to his position as one of the drafters of the decentralization bill, still portrays it as a positive step taken by the Habibie government to maintain a unitary state in the face of pressure for a federal system.
Hadiz, Sakai, and Widodo, however, paint a less positive image of decentralization policy. Hadiz uses the North Sumatran case to illustrate the process of old power reconstituting itself to capture local politics by making alliances with the new regime and capturing the institution of democracy.
Sakai offers a view of decentralization that shows foreign investors trapped in a dispute among the central and regional governments and the local community in the case of Semen Padang. She argues that deeply rooted internal divisions among various groups in West Sumatra served as the driving force of that dispute, which can be seen in the way the conflict has spread and expanded.
Amrih Widodo vividly illustrates regional politics in Blora, where the bupati regent and the chairperson of the local legislative body have been in the constant tension to maximize their political standing and economic resources. Careful analysis shows that politicians in newly-established, post-Soeharto political parties are those who were already engaged in politics, directly or indirectly, during the long Soeharto era.
At the regional level, politicians tend to make alliances to advance local against national interests. In this development, the category of old and new power is of questionable relevance in analyzing current political economy. In West Sumatra, for example, a strong Golkar party is still ruling and supports Zainal Bakar as governor because he came from within the bureaucracy.
Yet the governor is also subject to local parliamentary control in the issue of Semen Padang, in which he followed the position of parliament to take control of the plant. In this case, although the governor is supported by Golkar, it would be difficult to categorize him as a reflection of old power, as his parliamentary allies constitute a mixture of political interests that often oppose Golkar.
Rather than a power contest between old and new, decentralization and democratization in the regions seem to create marriages between groups or political parties that have similar local interests, and they tend to ignore their differences to face challenges from the central government.
Further, almost all elements on the regional level supported the provincial parliament and governor, forming an effective local alliance to take over Semen Padang from its legal owners — the Republic of Indonesia, Cemex of Mexico, and public investors in the Jakarta Stock Exchange.
Some contributors take the optimistic view that the processes of democratization and decentralization will serve the country well. Hans Antov and Arrelano A. Colongnon arrive at this view by looking at the role of civil society in strengthening regional democracy.
But others remain pessimistic due to factors such as ethnicity George Quinn ; the declining role of women in local parliaments Hana Satriyo ; increasing environmental degradation Idayu Pradnya Resosudarmo ; and the emergence of regional bureaucracies Michael Malley. I share the pessimism of these writers, seeing various negative impacts of decentralization.
Political alignments also undoubtedly follow religious lines. And decentralization seems often to be interpreted by local elites as an entry point to control, own, and manage economic resources. These are some of the developments that do not follow the road map set out by policy makers.Indonesia’s democratization process has been hi-jacked by predatory inter-ests — which ‘reformasi’ failed to sweep aside (ibid.) — the outcome of decentralization has been affected in ways largely unexpected in the neo-institutionalist literature.
3. Interview with J. Anto, North Sumatran press watchdog, 17 July The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
Indonesia's Reformation period is a period of an open and liberal democracy in conjunction with the decentralization of power to the regions. Even though it enjoys sizeable coal and natural gas reserves, Indonesia struggles to provide electricity to its growing economy.
Geography is its most obvious challenge. Let’s face it: Democracy is monstermanfilm.com, it surged after the fall of the Berlin Wall, reaching a high-water mark in the first years of the 21st century with various inspirational "colored.
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