Marine colonel, and Oxford-trained historian, began to uncover clues suggesting Nobel Prize-winning novelist Ernest Hemingway was deeply involved in mid-twentieth-century spycraft -- a mysterious and shocking relationship that was far more complex, sustained, and fraught with risks than has ever been previously supposed. Now Reynolds's meticulously researched and captivating narrative, Writer, Sailor, Soldier, Spy, "looks among the shadows and finds a Hemingway not seen before" London Review of Booksrevealing for the first time the whole story of this hidden side of Hemingway's life: Starting with Hemingway's sympathy to antifascist forces during the s, Reynolds illuminates Hemingway's immersion in the life-and-death world of the revolutionary left, from his passionate commitment to the Spanish Republic; his successful pursuit by Soviet NKVD agents, who valued Hemingway's influence, access, and mobility; his wartime meeting in East Asia with communist leader Chou En-Lai, the future premier of the People's Republic of China; and finally to his undercover involvement with Cuban rebels in the late s and his sympathy for Fidel Castro. Reynolds equally explores Hemingway's participation in various roles as an agent for the United States government, including hunting Nazi submarines with ONI-supplied munitions in the Caribbean on his boat, Pilar; his command of an informant ring in Cuba called the "Crook Factory" that reported to the American embassy in Havana; and his on-the-ground role in Europe, where he helped OSS gain key tactical intelligence for the liberation of Paris and fought alongside the U.
The Masses and The Elite Summary Analysis Machiavelli highlights two ways of becoming a prince that "cannot altogether be attributed to fortune or to prowess. Focusing on the first method, Machiavelli states his intention to explore two examples, one ancient and one modern, "without otherwise discussing the rights and wrongs" of this method.
Machiavelli firmly separates morality from his discussion of men who win their states through "criminal" methods.
Machiavelli refrains from ethical judgment of these princes, focusing instead on the advantages and disadvantages of their harsh tactics. Significantly, Machiavelli draws a distinction between these "criminal" methods and prowess.
Active Themes Machiavelli introduces the ancient example of Agathocles, who rose from the "lowest, most abject condition of life" to become king of Syracuse in Sicily.
Assembling the Senate of Syracuse, Agathocles had his soldiers massacre the senators and richest citizens and seized the government of Syracuse. Machiavelli argues that Agathocles' success cannot be attributed to fortune, since his rise was marked by "countless difficulties.
Recognizing the effectiveness of Agathocles' methods, Machiavelli nonetheless states that Agathocles cannot be "honored" with other able rulers. Machiavelli's refusal to attribute Agathocles' success to prowess functions as a sort of implicit criticism of his "treacherous" methods.
Interestingly, this implicit criticism contradicts Machiavelli's earlier attempts to remove morality from the discussion of criminal tactics, though it may fit with Machiavelli's belief that a ruler cannot succeed by inspiring hate in those whom he hopes to lead.
Raised by his uncle Fogliani, a leading citizen of Fermo, Oliverotto was sent to serve as a soldier in his youth.
Trained as a soldier and believing that "it was servile to take orders from others," Oliverotto hatched a plan to return to Fermo and seize it for himself. Returning to his childhood home, Oliverotto prepared a "formal banquet" to which he invited his uncle and other leading citizens.
During the banquet, Oliverotto's soldiers "appeared from hidden recesses" and killed Fogliani and all the other guests.
With his opponents eliminated, Oliverotto "strengthened his position" further by creating "new civil and military institutions. Although Machiavelli does not praise the treacherous Oliverotto, he does reference the skillful way in which Oliverotto "strengthened his position" by establishing new legal and military institutions.
By creating and staffing new institutions, Oliverotto fortified his new standing by ensuring that his recently installed ministers and military commanders remained loyal to and dependent on him. Like Agathocles, Oliverotto's methods were criminal but quite successful.
Stopping short of praise, Machiavelli does recognize Oliverotto's cunning ability to remove his opponents. Active Themes Machiavelli considers how it was that Agathocles and others like him were able to "live securely" in their own country after committing "countless treacheries and cruelties.
Machiavelli advises rulers to inflict violence "once for all" so that people will then "forget what it tastes like and so be less resentful. Machiavelli advises rulers to employ cruelty wisely to manage their relationship with their subjects. Violence used poorly will only enrage the people and thus weaken a ruler's position.
However, cruelty used well forms the cornerstone of a prudent prince's safety and security, allowing him to strengthen his position and his state. When used sparingly by a wise prince, cruelty can be a virtue. Cite This Page Choose citation style: Retrieved November 23, Louisiana Law Review Volume 52|Number 5 May California v.
Acevedo: The Ominous March of a Loyal Foot Soldier John Michael Harlow This Note is brought to you for free and open access by the Law Reviews and Journals at LSU Law Digital Commons.
Machiavelli not only argued that citizen soldiers were loyal and effective in war, but that they also took the time to advance themselves through individual opportunity and education as loyal citizens who held their governors in check and labored to better the state.
Discharging Your Loyal Soldier. The community needs you to return as a man, a citizen, and something beyond a soldier.” In our men’s work, we call this process “discharging your loyal soldier.” It is a brilliant analysis that parallels our own work in initiation (monstermanfilm.com) and my thesis in this book.
See Bill Plotkin, Nature and.
For over 20 years Citizen Soldier had built up his wealth while assembling an army of loyal followers and employees who would help him dispose of, what he believed to be, the hopelessly corrupt US government to enact a true realization of monstermanfilm.com Name: George Washington.
This is a very good study of the development of the Canadian citizen soldier that makes a significant contribution to the scholarly literature in the field of Canadian military history.
History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, The problem of extreme inequality of landed wealth led to a decline in the citizen-soldier arrangement, serfs were loyal to local vassals, who in turn were loyal to nobles, who in turn were loyal to the king.